For companies and factories, wastewater is always an indispensable component after the production process. Therefore, in order for the factory to operate in accordance with the law and at the same time not cause harm to the environment and workers’ health, the construction of a wastewater treatment system is essential.
So what is WASTE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM ? What kind of waste can it handle? Refer to the most cost-effective and optimal wastewater treatment systems today that we have compiled through the content of the article below!
What is wastewater treatment?
Wastewater treatment is a process to remove dirt and pollutants from wastewater (including domestic wastewater, industrial wastewater, hospital wastewater…) for the purpose of environmental protection and reuse of treated wastewater.
Wastewater treatment can use many different methods such as: physical, chemical, biological – Depending on the type of wastewater, the application of appropriate technology to achieve the highest efficiency.
You can refer to the treatment of domestic wastewater in the article: How to treat domestic wastewater
What is a wastewater treatment system? What is Waste water treatment system?
Wastewater treatment systems have English name is Waste water treatment system – is a system formed by multiple technologies and various chemicals to address pollutants in wastewater. Thereby forming a complete wastewater treatment system.
A good wastewater treatment system is a wastewater treatment system that is designed to adapt to changing wastewater treatment needs, can be long-lasting, durable to avoid costly replacement or equipment upgrade.
A standard wastewater treatment system should handle the following problems:
– Firstly: Treating toxic components in wastewater, meeting wastewater quality according to MOH (QCVN on wastewater)
– Second: Reasonable construction and installation costs but still ensure wastewater quality.
– Third: Easy upgrade when there is a change in water quality later
– Wednesday: Optionally add the amount of wastewater treatment chemicals
Image of the most advanced wastewater treatment system in the world
Processes in the wastewater treatment system
The construction of a wastewater treatment system before being released into the environment is a necessity for all agencies, businesses and individuals involved in production activities. Wastewater treatment includes many stages such as: chemical, physical, biological treatment.. These processes have the effect of promoting the improvement of water quality, helping to minimize the toxic content. discharged into the environment so that it can be reused and does not cause pollution. Here are some stages of the most popular wastewater treatment systems today that readers should refer to.
Wastewater treatment system before being released into the environment – illustration
See more industrial park wastewater treatment systems in the article:
Mechanical and physical processing processes
In wastewater often contains insoluble substances, large in size in suspension, so the beginning of the wastewater treatment system needs to remove these substances from the wastewater. To separate them from wastewater, we need to use methods such as: filtering through screens. Garbage nets, sand settling, floating lines,…
Depending on the size, physical and chemical properties, characteristics of the suspended matter, the appropriate technology is selected
Chemical and physicochemical treatment processes
After removing large-sized waste in wastewater, the system’s next process is chemical treatment such as pH neutralization, flocculation, etc. to adjust pH and remove suspended substances. Badger size, heavy metals in water and inorganic substances chất
Biological treatment process
Biological treatment mainly includes methods: anaerobic, aerobic, … to remove organic substances dissolved in the load water such as H2S, Sulfite, Ammonia, Nitrogen,…
What does a wastewater treatment system remove?
A standard wastewater treatment system will be made up of the necessary technologies to treat and remove the following wastes:
– Total Dissolved Solids
– Biochemical oxygen demand
– Nitra and Phosphate
– Germs in wastewater
– Heavy and light metals exist in wastewater
– Total suspended solids (TSS)
– Synthetic chemicals
– et cetera
You can see the details of the above substances in the article: composition of industrial wastewater, domestic wastewater
The most optimal wastewater treatment systems today
In order to achieve the highest efficiency and most cost savings in the wastewater treatment process, in this article, Greenwater.com.vn will provide you with wastewater treatment systems, from which you can apply them. Use your business to get the most out of it.
|1. Regulatory system||Fluctuation control of wastewater|
|2. Neutralization system||pH balance|
|3. Coagulation and flocculation system||Improves floc formation|
|4. Precipitation system||Remove heavy metals from wastewater|
|5. Floating Line Technology||Removes substances that can float on water|
|6. Sedimentation tank||Remove suspended solids, pollutants from water|
|7. Aerobic Biotechnology||Decompose and dissolve organic substances in water|
|8. Wastewater treatment system level 3||Remove harmful substances in water out|
1. Regulatory wastewater treatment system
Regulating is the process of minimizing or controlling fluctuations in the characteristics of wastewater in order to create optimal conditions for subsequent wastewater treatment processes. The process of regulation is carried out by storing wastewater in a large tank, then quantitatively pumping it into subsequent treatment tanks.
Pictures of the wastewater treatment system in the industry
The throttling process is used to:
- Adjust the variation in the flow of wastewater from hour to hour of the day.
- Avoid fluctuations in organic matter content that affect the activity of bacteria in biological treatment tanks.
- Control the pH of wastewater to create optimal conditions for subsequent biological and chemical processes.
- The storage capacity of the control tank also contributes to minimizing the impact on the environment because the discharge flow is maintained at a stable level.
- In addition, the control tank is also a place to fix the toxic substances for the biological treatment process, making the performance of this process better. VixCons
2. Neutralization Technology
Wastewater often has a pH that is not suitable for biological treatment processes or discharge into the environment. Therefore, it needs to be neutralized. There are many ways to carry out the neutralization process:
– Mix wastewater with acidic pH and wastewater with basic pH. By mixing two wastewaters with different pH, we can achieve the purpose of neutralization. This process requires a regulating tank large enough to hold the wastewater.
– Neutralize Acid Wastewater: People often let wastewater with acidic pH flow through a layer of limestone to neutralize; or add lime solution to wastewater, then lime is separated by settling process.
– Neutralize alkaline wastewater:with strong acids (note the economy). CO2 can also be used to neutralize alkaline wastewater, when CO2 is added to wastewater, it forms carbonic acid and neutralizes with wastewater.
In addition to applying these wastewater treatment systems , you can combine with wastewater treatment chemicals to get better results.
Illustrated image – Waste water treatment by neutralization tank
3. Coagulation and flocculation technology
These two chemical processes agglomerate suspended solids and colloidal particles to form larger particles. Wastewater contains colloidal particles with an electrical charge (usually a negative charge). +9 The best & most economical industrial wastewater treatment system
It is its charge that prevents it from colliding and recombining, keeping the solution in a stable state. The addition of certain chemicals (alum, ferrous chloride, etc.) filtration or sedimentation.
The most commonly used flocculants are iron or aluminum salts with trivalent valence. The flocculants commonly used are macromolecular organic substances such as polyacrilamide. Combining the use of organic macromolecules with inorganic salts significantly improves the floc formation.
4. Precipitation method
Precipitation is the most commonly used method to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Often heavy metals are precipitated as hydroxides. Therefore, to complete this process, it is common to add bases to the wastewater to bring the wastewater to a pH where the heavy metals that need to be removed have the lowest solubility.
Often before precipitation, it is necessary to remove other contaminants that could interfere with precipitation. Precipitation is also used to reduce phosphate in wastewater. VixCons
5. Application of flotation technology for wastewater treatment
This process is used to remove substances that can float on the surface of wastewater such as oil, grease, and suspended solids. In the flotation tank, people also combine to concentrate and remove sludge.
The wastewater, or part of it, is first pressurized in the presence of a sufficiently large amount of air. When this wastewater is returned to the natural pressure of the atmosphere, it creates air bubbles. Oil particles, grease and suspended solids will stick to the air bubbles and each other to float to the top and be separated by a rod from the wastewater.
Using a flotation tank in the current wastewater treatment system – illustration
6. Settling tank technology
The settling process applies the difference in density of water, suspended solids and other pollutants in the wastewater to remove them from the wastewater. This is an important method for removing suspended solids.
Sedimentation tanks are usually rectangular or circular in shape. +9 The best & most economical industrial wastewater treatment system
For the rectangular sedimentation tank at the bottom of the tank, there is a horizontal slurry bar design of the tank, this wiper moves towards the inlet of the wastewater and collects the sludge into a small hole here, then the sludge is discharged. go out.
There are two types of circular settling tanks:
- Type 1 wastewater is put into the tank in the center of the tank and removed at the wall of the tank
- Type 2 wastewater is put into the tank wall and removed at the center of the tank.
- The circular sump is more efficient than the rectangular sump.
The settling process can also be combined with the flocculation process when adding some wastewater treatment chemicals to significantly improve the settling efficiency.
7. Aerobic biological treatment technology
Most of the organic matter in wastewater is degraded by biological processes. During biological treatment, microorganisms will use oxygen to decompose organic matter and their growth accelerates.
In addition to organic matter (present in wastewater), oxygen (provided by us) biological processes are limited by a number of other nutrients. Except for nitrogen and phosphorus, other substances are present in the waste in sufficient quantities for biological treatment.
Domestic wastewater contains these substances in a ratio suitable for biological treatment. Some industrial wastewater such as paper mill wastewater has a high carbon content but lacks phosphorus and nitrogen, so these two sources need to be supplemented for the bacteria to work effectively. Other factors affecting bioremediation are temperature, pH and toxins.
There are many different designs for aerobic biological treatment tanks, but the most commonly used is the activated sludge tank, the principle of which is that bacteria decompose organic matter in wastewater and then form flocs. the sediment is large enough to carry out the settling process easily.
The flocs are then separated from the wastewater by mechanical settling. Thus an activated sludge treatment system includes: an activated sludge tank and a settling tank.
Pictures of aerobic biological wastewater treatment technology
8. Application of aerator
The aeration process not only provides oxygen for bacteria to work on to decompose organic matter, it also helps in the reduction of iron and magnesium. In addition, it also stimulates the chemical oxidation of organic substances that are difficult to decompose by biological means and generates the required amount of DO to be discharged into the environment. There are many ways to complete aeration: by gas diffusion or by stirring. VixCons
9. Wastewater treatment system level 3
The filtration process is intended to remove suspended solids or flocs (from flocculation or floc formation), and the filter tank is also intended to remove water from the sludge removed from the settling tanks.
The filtration process is based on the main principle that when wastewater passes through a layer of porous material, solids larger than the pores will be trapped. There are many different types of filter tanks, but few are good for wastewater treatment. Two types commonly used in wastewater treatment are sand filters and rotary drums.
The adsorption process is often used to remove small organic particles in industrial wastewater (which are difficult to remove by biological treatment systems ).
The main principle of the process is that the surface of solids (used as adsorbents) when in contact with wastewater has the ability to retain wastewater dissolved substances on its surface due to the difference of surface tension.
The commonly used adsorbent is activated carbon (granular). Depending on the characteristics of the wastewater, we choose the corresponding type of activated carbon. The adsorption process is effective in reducing COD, phenol color, etc.
Activated carbon after a period of use will saturate and lose its adsorption capacity, we can regenerate them by means of separating the adsorbed substances from activated carbon through: heat, steam, acids, bases, solvent extraction or chemical oxidation.
– Ion exchange
Ion exchange is the process of applying the principle of reversible ion exchange of solids and liquids without changing the structure of the solid. This process is used to remove cations and anions from wastewater. The cations will exchange with hydrogen or sodium ions, the anions will exchange with the hydroxyl ion of the ion exchange resin.
Most ion exchange resins are synthetic compounds. It is a macromolecular organic or inorganic substance bound with functional groups. Ion exchange resins used in wastewater treatment systems are high-molecular organic compounds with a 3-dimensional structure and pores. Functional groups are attached to the macromolecular structure by reacting the compound with chemicals containing the appropriate functional groups.
The ion exchange capacity is calculated as the number of functional groups per unit weight of the ion exchange resin. The operation and economic efficiency of this method depend on the ion exchange capacity and the amount of regenerator required. The wastewater is allowed to flow through the ion exchange resin until the ionic substances to be removed disappear.
When the ion exchange resin has exhausted its ion exchange capacity, it is regenerated with suitable regenerators. After the regeneration the regenerators are washed away with water and now the ion exchange resin is ready to be used for the next cycle. VixCons
Above are wastewater treatment systems and technologiesmost used and optimized today. Hopefully one of those technologies will help you treat your business’ wastewater well. If you have any questions, please contact us at Tel: 0846794444 for a free consultation.