How many stages are there in the design and construction of high-rise buildings? What are the design standards of high-rise buildings?
When embarking on project implementation, the construction of high-rise structures with the proper technique, on time, and at a low cost is always a concern and concern of many investors. To address the above issues, we must first comprehend the stages of high-rise building construction as well as design requirements.
High-rise Building Construction from VixCons
Which steps are involved in the design and construction of high-rise buildings?
Stage 1: Preparation to high-rise building construction
When it comes to the construction of high-rise buildings, this stage is crucial. Its primordial base is weak without this step. This is the first step toward sobriety and professionalism. Architects must devote time and effort to produce drawings. To ensure that the project runs well, other workers must devote time to completing all legal procedures, documentation, and coordinating with the materials supplier.
This phase contains three main steps:
- Prepare all types of documentation, including project drawings.
- Getting the construction site ready
- Units specializing in material supply and reception summarization
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Stage 2: Preparation of the work’s basis
Following that is the project’s foundation treatment stage. The building company must prepare supplies, equipment, and machines for the background treatment at this point. Prior to mass piling, they will undertake test piling. The construction unit conducts an acceptance test of the complete pile pressing stage after mass piling and presents the results. The filter press is made of reinforced concrete, which provides a strong base for the house.
Stage 3: The high-rise building’s foundation is being built
The construction unit will construct the home foundation after completing the procedure of pressing reinforced concrete piles. They will drill holes into which concrete will be poured. In addition, the house’s foundation walls must be built, concrete bracing must be poured, septic tanks must be built, and manholes must be built…
High-rise building construction necessitates the use of expert architects and construction workers. They must also be very trained and knowledgeable, thus this phase necessitates extreme precision.
High-rise building construction necessitates the use of expert architects and construction workers
Stage 4: The body of the high-rise skyscraper is constructed
- A reinforced concrete frame system, floor, wall, and roof make up the body of a high-rise building. This section’s building steps are as follows:
- Concrete or reinforced materials are used to build columns.
- constructing reinforced concrete floors for the first floor
- The first-floor wall is being built.
- On the first floor, construct a stairwell
- On the first floor, outcomes are evaluated, accepted, and reported.
- Carry on with the other floors in the same manner.
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Stage 5: The high-rise roof is being built
After going through the first four levels, you’ll arrive at the high-rise building’s roof construction stage. The roof of a high-rise building is given extra care because it is the building’s protective layer. This helps to avoid any negative external influences such as the sun, rain, or storm… The roof determines whether a high-rise building is of good quality or not.
These steps are involved in the construction of high-rise building roofs:
- Construction on the insulation began, as well as the creation of a roof slope.
- Pouring concrete that is waterproof
- Bricks, tiles, and their installation…
- Construction of the roof has been completed, and it has been accepted.
- Notify the investor about the construction progress.
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Stage 6: Complete the project
The inside of the building is part of the overall construction process. It is concerned with the construction of both the interior and exterior of a building. Plastering walls, floor tiles, electrical wires, and house painting are just a few examples.
Stage 7: Finishing the project and delivering it off
The construction unit will clean the work after finishing the preceding six steps. They will contact a professional cleaning company to finish the job. Conduct inspections, acceptances, and customer handovers.
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High-rise building design standards
In line with environmental conditions, climate, and human demands, all construction units must meet high-rise building design standards such as safety, durability, and aesthetics. Security, noise reduction, environmental sanitation, as well as fire and explosion avoidance… are all extremely important considerations.
High-rise building design standards
Create parking garages in the basements of high-rise structures
We must pay attention to the design of the garage in accordance with high-rise building design standards:
- Current regulations governing the design of parking tunnels are as follows:
- 2.2m is the minimum height requirement.
- The tunnel’s outlet leads to the main road and does not link to the building’s corridor.
- The basement has two huge entrances, each measuring little more than 0.9mx1.2m in size.
- There is at least one elevator that leads to the building’s basement.
- To avoid groundwater and wastewater, the base and distance from the reinforced concrete tunnel must be at least 20cm thick.
Parking in an apartment is standard:
- Parking spot for one car: 25m2/car if there are four or more families.
- Parking for motorcycles and motorcycles: Area for 1 car: 2.5m2-3m2/car from 2 motorcycles or more
- Parking for bicycles: standard area 0.9m2 / car
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Slope requirements in the basement:
- The minimum slope of a walkway is 14% from depth.
- Slopes, including straight and curved: 17%
Electrical system design for high-rise structures
Electrical system design guidelines for high-rise buildings must ensure that enough electricity is available for home use. Furthermore, the quality must be within acceptable limits, including standards such as:
- Depending on the load, ensure a high-voltage power supply.
- The basic goal of power quality is to keep voltage variances and fluctuations below acceptable limits.
- Meet the requirements for safe use.
- The layout of equipment that is appropriate for the building space is more convenient, easy to operate, and maintain.
- Total operating costs are low.
Electrical system design for high-rise structures
Ladders for emergency situations
When a building or construction has problems, an escape ladder is employed as an emergency exit. When creating an escape ladder, keep the following in mind:
- The first-floor room’s doors open directly to the outside, or the lobby’s doors open directly to the outside.
- All of the rooms’ doorways lead to the exit ladder or the lobby.
- Doors leading to rooms via the main entrance, a corridor with an exit, or an emergency ladder
- Rooms on the same floor have magnetic doors with fire-resisting qualities of level 3 or above, and there are no industrial enterprises with risky classes A, B, or C.
The escape path should allow for safe mobility within a reasonable amount of time. When there is dust, an accident, or an incident, the escape path ensures that everyone in the flat can get out in the safest way possible.
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Water supply and drainage system design
A high-rise building’s domestic water supply and drainage system, as well as its fire suppression system, must comply with the following regulations:
- Use plumbing designs that are appropriate for the amount of water consumed and the level of comfort desired. In most cases, it will be between 200 and 300 liters per person every day and night. Standard fire water supply of up to 2.5 liters per second per column. There are two water columns inside.
- The water supply partition must ensure that there is enough water flow and pressure for use.
- The water pressure is less than 60 meters, and the free pressure in the fire hydrant is normally 6 meters or greater.
- The building’s water supply system runs continuously to meet the building’s needs.
- Managing noise in the context of the environment, as well as hydraulic shock
- Pressure tanks and storage tanks, as well as the volume of stored water, are located on the rooftops of high-rise structures to ensure that the water demand is met.
- Water pipes are designed independently to ensure that water is available for use as well as firefighting.
- Domestic wastewater is meant to flow freely and meets water supply regulations.
Garbage collection area design
To meet environmental sanitation and fire and explosion standards, high-rise buildings include rubbish collection facilities. The following conditions must be met by the interior rubbish collection system:
- Rubbish collector doors can be found in each floor’s garbage collection chamber. Each garbage collection chamber is completely enclosed, has a natural or forced ventilation system, and does not emit aromas into the surrounding units.
- The distance between the house and the rubbish collection facility is 25 meters.
- Each floor has a fireproof mattress compartment at the entrance to the waste collection area.
- Shields, valves, and fireproof chamber doors constructed of fireproof and anti-corrosion materials make up the rubbish collection system’s structure.
- Garbage collection bins in private rooms on each floor do not block movement or escape.
- Garbage that poses a risk of exploding and spreading disease should not be thrown away.
Security system standards
In high-rise structures, security systems are the industry norm. To keep the facility working properly, there is an access control system, security sections, and offices. Design requirements for security systems:
- Building protection and control necessitate decentralization and regulation.
- Building staff management system, including automatic timekeeping equipment, personnel management, and security management…
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Ventilation system design
The ventilation system is where the amount of air in the building is controlled. As a result, this system must meet certain requirements for high-rise building design regulations.
In public areas, the building employs the design of a central air conditioning system. It is advisable to build a local air conditioning system for apartment spaces. Without compromising the framework of the building, each room is equipped with a functional air conditioning system and water pipes.
To provide a source of natural cool space, the building is created with windows and single doors. The best way to achieve this is to insulate and shade the entire house.